Shake well. Spritz onto your dog, on a brush, or on your hand and pet into the dog's fur. Petting them in the opposite direction of the fur will allow the formula to get down close to the root of the fur. Apply to areas where the fleas like to inhabit such as the tail and along the spine. We recommend using this outside if possible, as this is a repellent and the fleas may jump off the animal when applied. This is an all natural spray that is safe for your canine. Ingredients: Clary Sage, Citronella, Peppermint, Lemon, Vegetable gylcerin, grain alcohol, castor oil, Grapefruit seed extract, distilled water. 4 oz spray bottle.